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Muscles are shrunken human tissues that develop from the embryonic mesoderm. Muscle cells have contractile fibers that move between cells and change the size of the cells. Muscles are divided into three types: skeletal muscle, myocardium and smooth muscle. Their functions are to generate force and cause exercise. The contraction of the myocardium and smooth muscle is not controlled by consciousness and is necessary for survival, such as contraction of the heart or peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract. The voluntary contraction of the skeletal muscle is used to move the body and can be finely controlled, such as the movement of the eye or the overall movement of the quadriceps of the thigh. The autonomic muscle fibers are divided into two types: slow muscle fibers can last for a long time, but the strength is small; fast muscle fibers shrink faster and have greater strength, but also feel tired faster.

Muscle (muscle) is mainly composed of muscle tissue.   Elongated shape of the muscle cells, fibrous form, it is commonly referred to as muscle cells muscle fibers. In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, muscle refers to the general term for body muscle tissue and subcutaneous fat tissue. The whole body is exercising. The muscles of the spleen and muscles are obtained from the spleen's transported water valley.

The muscles of the human body can be divided into smooth muscle, myocardium and skeletal muscle according to their structure and function . According to the morphology, they can be divided into long muscle, short muscle, broad muscle and rim muscle. Smooth muscle mainly constitutes viscera and blood vessels, has the characteristics of slow contraction, long-lasting, and not easy to fatigue. The heart muscle constitutes the heart wall, and neither of them shrinks with the will of the human being, so it is called involuntary muscle. Skeletal muscle is distributed in the head, neck, trunk and limbs. It is usually attached to the bone. The skeletal muscle contracts rapidly, is powerful, and is easy to fatigue. It can be relieved with the will of the person, so it is called voluntary muscle. The skeletal muscle is transversely striated under the microscope , so it is also called striated muscle.


Skeletal muscle is the dynamic part of the motor system . Under the control of the nervous system , the skeletal muscle contracts and the traction bone produces motion. There are more than 600 human skeletal muscles, which are widely distributed, accounting for about 40% of body weight. Each skeletal muscle has a certain shape, structure, position and auxiliary device, and has abundant distribution of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Certain nerve innervation. Therefore, each skeletal muscle can be regarded as an organ.

The head muscles can be divided into two parts: the facial muscles (expression muscles) and the masticatory muscles. The trunk muscles can be divided into the back muscles, the chest muscles, the abdominal muscles, and the diaphragm muscles. The lower extremity muscles are divided into hip muscles, thigh muscles, calf muscles and foot muscles according to their location, which are thicker than the upper limb muscles, which is related to supporting weight, maintaining erection and walking.

Muscle tissue

( 1 ) Blood supply to the muscles

The muscles are rich in blood supply and are compatible with the metabolism of muscles. Each muscle has its own blood supply. The main blood vessels are accompanied by nerves, along the muscle interval and fascial space, branching from the muscle to the muscles, repeatedly branching in the muscles, and finally forming muscle fibers around the muscle intima. The capillary network is transferred from the capillary network into the venules and venules. The blood supply to the muscle meat, location, thickness, count and other primary and secondary, the meat may be the muscle blood supply divided into 4 types: 1) Single nutrient artery type: the diameter of an arterial supply coarser The muscles are compressed, and the arteries are inserted into the muscles from the proximal end of the muscles, such as the tensor fascia muscle, the iliac muscle, and the lateral head. 2 ) Double-vegetable arterial type: The muscle has two supply of nutritional arteries with similar diameters, such as large gluteal muscles, straight abdominal muscles, and straight muscles. 3) the main nutrient artery and minor nutrient artery type: The muscle and a thick smaller nutrient artery supplying secondary arteries, such as meat trapezius muscle, latissimus dorsi meat. 4 ) Segmental nutrient arterial type: Muscle meat is supplied by several fine arteries. The arterial trunk of the limb is branched into the muscle from the beginning to the end of the muscle, and is distributed in segments, such as the sartorius muscle. , the anterior tibial muscles, the toes and the long muscles. There is less blood supply to the muscle spasm. The source of blood supply is as follows: 1 longitudinal blood vessels in the connective tissue between the muscles and tendon junctions; 2 small branches from the interstitial blood vessels; 3 muscles Blood vessels from the bone and periosteum at the site of the sputum.

( B ) lymphatic drainage of muscles

The lymphatic return of the muscle begins in the capillary lymphatic vessels of the muscles. They are located in the muscle fascia of the muscle's outer membrane. After leaving the muscle, they are accompanied by venous return and merge into larger deep lymphatic vessels.

( C ) the innervation of muscles

The nerve branch that governs muscle meat is called the muscle branch. Except for the abdominal dislocation and the deep muscles of the back are segmental innervation, most of the other muscles are mostly innervated by a single nerve. The nerve source of the muscles, walking and entering the muscles are more constant than the blood vessels, with less variation, and are accompanied by the main nutrient vessels of the muscles, and are basically the same in the muscles. The nerves that innervate the muscles usually contain both sensory and motor nerve fibers. The sensory fiber transmits the pain and warmth of the muscles and the proprioception. The latter mainly feels the relaxation and contraction of muscle fibers and plays an important regulatory role in muscle activity. The motor nerves contract the muscle fibers to contract and maintain muscle tone, establishing a synaptic connection between the distal and muscle fibers, called the endplate or neuromuscular junction. When the nerve impulse arrives, the nerve endings release acetylcholine, causing contraction of muscle fibers. In addition, nerve fibers also have a nutritive effect on muscle fibers, releasing certain nutrients from the ends and promoting the synthesis of glycoproteins. Nerve damage muscles denervation, muscle glycogen synthesis slows down, protein decomposition accelerates, muscle meat gradually shrinks, called nutritional muscle atrophy. In addition, some sympathetic nerve fibers enter the muscle meat with the blood vessels of the muscles and are distributed to the smooth muscles of the blood vessels.

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Muscle structure

Each muscle that makes up a moving organ is a complex organ composed of the muscle belly and the tendon.

1. abdominal muscle

Muscle belly portion of the muscle is the major organs, muscle organs in the middle, by means of connective tissue by a number of skeletal muscle fibers from binding. Has the ability to shrink. The connective tissue that coats the outer surface of the entire muscle is called the epithelium. The extramuscular membrane extends inwardly, and the muscle fibers are divided into muscle bundles of different sizes, which are called muscle bundle membranes and then inwardly projecting, surrounding each muscle fiber, called the endomysium. The sarcolemma is the supporting tissue of the muscle, giving the muscle a certain shape. Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves are important for the metabolism and function of muscles as they enter the muscles.

2. Tendon

The tendons are located at both ends of the muscle abdomen and are composed of dense connective tissue. It is mostly cord-like in the limbs, and is mostly thin in the trunk, also known as the diaphragm. The iliac fiber is connected to both ends of the muscle fiber by the endometrium or penetrates into the muscle abdomen. The sputum can not shrink, but has strong toughness and tension, and is not easy to fatigue. Its fibers extend into the periosteum and bone, allowing the muscles to adhere firmly to the bone.

The meaning of muscle training

The muscles under the skin are a magical engine. It allows us to walk, jump, and even climb steep rocks. The cooperation between the 600 muscles of the human body helps you to spend every day.

Muscle helps us fight gravity. Muscle fibers control every movement, from blinking to smiling, thousands of tiny fibers that form a muscle bundle that forms a complete muscle system. For example, rock climbing enthusiasts need to tighten the muscles every time they climb one step. The muscles can only be pulled, not pushed, and most of them belong to skeletal muscles. They are connected to the tendons by the tendons, and the tightly bound tendon fibers have the function of rubber bands.

Muscles can touch the eye, let us see things, make eyes, wink; the muscles of the hands and fingertips allow us to pinch very small objects. Take rock climbers as an example. They need to hold things to fix themselves, and continuous muscle contraction can make them climb up.

We can decide when and how to affect skeletal muscle, but we are not always aware of this change. Sometimes you may adjust your posture slightly to maintain balance, but perhaps this change in posture has not been discovered by yourself. This dynamic balance has been happening all the time. But there are also some muscles that we can't control at will - the digestive system. There are many involuntary muscles there. There are three kinds of involuntary muscles (inner oblique, middle and lateral longitudinal smooth muscle) in our stomach that are responsible for crushing food. There are two kinds in the small intestine, which are responsible for squeezing food like a snake and then stretching it forward. Involuntary muscles also help our heart continue to beat. Myocardium has only one thing in our life: delivering blood.

Through a certain amount of exercise, the muscles can become developed. But is the big muscles good? the answer is negative. Capillaries are responsible for carrying red blood cells through the muscles. When the muscles contracted violently, the capillaries were squeezed, the muscles began to lack oxygen, and the waste began to accumulate. However, under extreme stress, the muscles are unable to respond quickly, and fatigue is constantly coming.

In the case of rock climbing, a muscular strong male climber may think that climbing up all the time is good, so he can climb very fast. But the muscles of his forearm will soon be deprived of oxygen, forcing him to give up. In the face of some physical challenges, women have an advantage over men. Rock climbing is more about the ratio of strength and weight of a person. Small muscles are more beneficial, just take your weight. Women with smaller muscles have less force and squeeze the capillaries lighter, so the muscles are more endurable.



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