Robotics has become a key research technology in advanced countries. Research hotspots at home and abroad. Many key technologies have achieved breakthroughs that have enabled people to use robots to replace people’s desire to work in harsh environments. In the field of packaging engineering has also been applied.

Since the birth of the world's first robot in the United States in 1949, there have been a lot of 』『: The developed countries have invested a lot of manpower and material resources in the research and development of robotics technology. The most successful application is Japan. The application of robotics has greatly facilitated the automation of the industry. More than 800,000 industrial robots are in use worldwide. At the same time, various intelligent robots have been introduced continuously, such as handling robots, product packaging robots, metal welding robots, painting robots, agricultural product sorting robots, etc., which are applied in the product flow.

1 Introduction to Robotics

The robot technology mainly includes five major contents: robot structure, robot motion, robot mechanics, robot control, and robot intelligence. However, different scholars and data also have different classification methods, but any robotics technology can not be separated from these five major contents.

1.1 Robot Structure

The robot structure is represented by a robot structure and a fuselage (or stand) knot. However, there are also many discourses on how to divide the robot structure into a robot system structure and a robot manipulator structure.

(1) Mechanical structure

The robot structure is what robots use to "operate." In general, the structure of a plurality of connecting rods of the foot mountain is jointed to the joint, and is fixed to the body I. At its front end, an end effector suitable for work is installed to complete the grasping action, similar to the hand of a person grabbing an object. Sensors are sometimes installed. Modern robotics technology makes the robot structure more and more intelligent.

(2) Body (or frame) structure

The fuselage (or base) structure is mainly to support the main part of the robot and various sensors. It has the requirements of balance and flexibility, especially for sports or walking robots, which must maintain balance, stability, and flexibility, otherwise it is difficult to achieve predetermined work requirements when the robotic hand performs a grab.

1.2 Robot Movement

Robot movement refers to the robot's overall and local movement. It requires driving forces to achieve it. The core of robot movement is the movement mode and the type of movement, which is concentrated on the joints between various components and components. In addition to general movements in designing and handling robot movements, more problems are solved for joint variables. That is, the equivalent parameter length L and angle 9 are handled as variables of numbers. For example, a joint has a slewing joint and a prismatic joint (when a straight line moves), and all joint position variables are called joint variables.

The most typical motion analysis for robot motion is to represent the position variable v and the joint variable 9 in vectors.

The mathematical methods used to describe Y and 9 are mainly attitude transformation matrix, homogeneous transformation matrix and Jacobian matrix.

1.3 Robot Mechanics

Robot mechanics is the study of the relationship between forces and joint driving forces in the executive component. That is, the relationship between dynamics and statics. Also contact kinematics.

When the robot is working, the joint driving force, the joint position 0, the joint speed and the joint acceleration and other parameters change, and is handled by the dynamics study. The dynamics study also relates to the dimensions, mass, moment of inertia of the various components of the robot, and the distance between the mass center of the component and the axis of the joint.

Statics is the mechanics of handling a robot at rest. There is a relationship between parametric variables among statics, dynamics, and kinematics. See Figure 1. The relationship indicated by the dotted line in the figure is represented by a combination of solid line relationships. It can also be handled as a dynamic problem.

(to be continued)

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