1. What kind of rope to choose

A. Semi-static rope

Designed for caving and canyoning, they are medium in elasticity and can absorb some of the limited fall energy.

B. Dynamic rope

* Its technical characteristics and dynamic raservers, which can reduce the impact and absorb the falling energy. Used in climbing and mountaineering.

C.Single rope

Just as its name says, it is used singly. Designed for climbing surfaces, it is best suited for routes that are near vertical angles and do not descend from ropes.

D. Double rope

The double rope is mainly used for climbing and long-line rock climbing where the rope must be lowered. (Warm note: The double rope is thinner than the single rope. Generally, two ropes are used at the same time. If the risk of falling is small, it can also be used alone.) It is also very good when the quality of the protection is not very good, such as in an icy environment.

E. Twin rope

Since it is always necessary to use two strands together, practical use is very limited and it is better to stop the production of such ropes. We already have a double-stranded IceLine and twin ropes just as light.

F. Different play, different ropes (Rope by activity)

Hiking, rock climbing, caving, or traveling ropes are technically targeted at different activities, so it is best to choose the rope that best suits your range and level.

G. The sign on the rope

The rope head is generally marked with:

H. Rope length

I. Rope type sign: 1 single rope; (1/2) twin rope; (00) twin rope; C valley rope;

J. Standards to follow: CE European Standard UIAA International Association Standard

2. Basic indicators

A. Impact force

For single ropes, the standard stipulates that a drop of 80 kg heavy objects should have a fall factor of 2 (warm note: see below for drop factor). The maximum fall time cannot exceed 12 kN. For the double rope, it is to prevent the fall of 55 KG coefficient of 2 from exceeding 8 kN. After being subjected to multiple impacts and use, the impact force of the rope increases. The smaller the impact force you choose with a rope, you can use it longer.

B. Knotability

The inner diameter of a single knot that withstands 10 KG pull must be less than 1.1 times the rope diameter. The smaller the number, the more flexible the rope.

C. Number of falls

In order to meet the standards, the rope must be able to withstand five consecutive falls of a factor of two. The number of falls that can be used decreases with the length of time the rope is used, so the greater the number of falls, the longer the rope can be used. Note: The number of falls between double ropes and single ropes is not comparable because they have different weights when tested.

D. Number of bobbins

The sheath is wrapped around the cord, which is the visible part of the cord. It is made up of many strands of monofilament. Each strand is wrapped around a spindle. For the same diameter, the more spindles, the better the dynamics of the sheath, the smaller the number of spindles and the more wear-resistant. So one person chooses 48 spindles for the better dynamics (Top Gun) or a single rope (Wall Master III) with 32 ingots for more wear resistance.

E. Extension

Under the pulling force of 80KG, the single rope cannot exceed 8% and the double rope cannot exceed 10%. It is this flexibility that allows the rope to absorb the falling energy. The extension should not be too large, otherwise it will become a bungee cord.

F. Diameter and weight

Larger diameter ropes generally have a longer useful life, but they are heavier and harder to make. In the important lines of weight and ease of use, it is best to choose a finer rope. The overall performance of the rope should be considered as a balance between weight and dynamic performance. Recommendation: The measurement of size is not as accurate as weight, so it is better to compare the weight of the rope instead of the size.

G. Sheath slippage

The sheath and the core are two separate parts. If their structure is not well matched, there will be a tendency of relative sliding, the sheath begins to deform, and under the constant friction of the descender, a loose section is formed around the cord and Drum package, there is a nesting effect. This phenomenon leads to faster wear, especially if it is over-protected or heavily used, it can also cause the rope to block on the descender or protector. Note: This is the only indicator that differs between EuroNorm and UIAA requirements. European Standard stipulates that after 2 meters of rope is pulled on a specific device, the sheath slides less than 40mm or 2%, while UIAA is more stringent and requires less than 20mm or 1%

Drop coefficient

The drop factor is determined by the severity of the fall. The larger the coefficient, the more serious the crash. In climbing, this is even from 0 to 2, which is calculated by dividing the falling distance by the length of the rope that is active. The severity of the fall is not a function of the distance to fall, but the ratio, because the longer the rope, the longer it can extend to absorb the falling energy. For example, a fall of 5 meters, a rope length of 2.5 meters, a drop factor of 2.

4. impact

A. The impact is:

The power that is passed to the climber when the fall is restrained. It also spreads along the ropes to anchor points, carabiners, and belayers. The role of the rope is to absorb the falling energy, reduce the impact force and its effect. The choice of rope is the basic factor. In this regard, the quality of the rope is judged on the basis of its ability to cause low impact and the ability to withstand the ability to preserve it after repeated impacts.

B. Maximum impact force

This is measured according to the requirements of the standard, which is the worst case: the first fall, the coefficient is 2. This is the number given in the performance index of the rope.

C. Impact Change In a continuous fall, the rope's dynamic performance is reduced, the impact force is strengthened, and if a new rope's impact force approaches the standard upper limit, it cannot be used like another rope with better dynamic performance. It will take a long time.

D. What about the impact?

E. Danger of running belay anchors

During a fall, the protection point is acted on by two forces: the climber's and the protector's, both of which synthesize a pull. If the rope cannot absorb enough energy, the protection point will be greatly stressed, increasing the risk of failure of the protection point. Low-impact rope is the key to reducing the stress on the protection point.

F. Protection difficulties

If the power transmitted to the protector is too great, it will be more difficult to stop falling, and the rope will run too fast in protective gear.

G. Dangers of climbing people

If the fall is not well controlled, the climber will have to take the direct consequences.

Climb the performance of the master rope

First, climbing ropes must have UIAA certification. UIAA has stringent requirements for qualified climbing ropes and will not repeat them here. For single ropes, the two most important ones are: the first impact force shall not be greater than 12kN (falling weight 80kg), and the continuous fall within five minutes (falling coefficient of 2) is less than five consecutive ropes. But everyone should not think that the ropes also marked with UIAA have the same performance. The performance varies greatly and the difference in service life is also significant. How to determine the difference in rope performance is mainly from the above two aspects: the smallest initial impact force (impact force) means better protection for the fall of the climber (and less pull on the protector and the fixing point). The higher the UIAA falls, the longer the service life of the rope (the ability of the rope to maintain ductility after falling again and again). Here is a performance comparison of the performance of the same level of rope (9.7mm and 11mm ratio) of several major rope manufacturers in the world: for your reference

Brands Origin model diameter Impact force UIAA falls Extension rate Overview
MAMMUT Switzerland Flash ND 10.5mm 9.0kN 8-10 5.9% 3
BEAL France TOP GUN 10.5mm 6.8kN 12 7.6% 4+
Rivory France VIRUS 10.2mm 9.9kN 6 2
EDELRID Germany DUNALOC 10.5mm 8.9kN 9-11 6.6% 4-
EDELWEISE Austria STRATOS 10.5mm 9.0kN 10 3+
BLUE WATER United States Single 10.5mm 9.0kN 8 5.2% 3-
COUSIN France SUPERLIGHT 10.5mm 7.6kN 8-10 5.4%


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